History[ edit ] Inthe front page of the Plain Dealer featured a cartoon by Fred George Reinert that used a caricatured Native American character with a definite resemblance to the later Chief Wahoo as a stand-in for the Cleveland Indians winning an important victory.
Traditional culture Linguistic organization Six distinct American Indian language families or stocks were represented in the Plains. Those speaking the same language are generally referred to as a tribe or nation, but this naming convention frequently masks the existence of a number of completely autonomous political divisions, or bands, within a given tribe.
For instance, the Blackfoot Blackfeet tribe included three independent bands, the Piegan officially spelled Peigan in CanadaBlood, and Blackfoot proper Northern Blackfoot. Each language family included groups that lived in other culture areas, and the speakers of the several languages within a stock were not always geographically contiguous.
Thus the speakers of Algonquian languages included the BlackfootArapahoAtsinaPlains Creeand Saulteaux Plains Ojibwaall in the northern Plains, while Cheyennealso an Algonquian language, was spoken in the central Plains.
Two other communication systems bear mention.
Michif was spoken over a wide area. This was a system of fixed hand and finger positions symbolizing ideas, the meanings of which were known to the majority of the tribes of the area.
The role of the horse in Plains life The introduction of the horse had a profound effect on the material life of the Plains peoples. Horses greatly increased human mobility and productivity in the region—so much so that many scholars divide Plains history into two periods, one before and one after the arrival of the horse.
Horses became available gradually over the course of at least a century; before ad horses were fairly rare, and by they had become relatively common. Buffalo Hunt, Chase, painting by George Catlin, Typical of hunting and gathering cultures worldwide, Plains residents lived in small family-based groups, usually of no more than a few dozen individuals, and foraged widely over the landscape.
The peoples of deep prehistory in this region are referred to as Paleo-Indians, Archaic culturesand Plains Woodland cultures see Native American: By approximately adsome residents of the central Plains had shifted from foraging to farming for a significant portion of their subsistence and were living in settlements comprising a number of large earth-berm homes.
As early asand no later than aboutmost Plains residents had made this shift and were living in substantial villages and hamlets along the Missouri River and its tributaries; from north to south these groups eventually included the Hidatsa, Mandan, Arikara, Ponca, Omaha, Pawnee, Kansa, Osage, and Wichita.
Some villages reached populations of up to a few thousand people.
These groups, known as Plains Village culturesgrew corn maizebeans, squash, and sunflowers in the easily tilled land along the river bottoms. Women were responsible for agricultural production and cultivated their crops using antler rakes, wooden digging sticks, and hoes made from the shoulder blades of elk or buffalo.
Women also collected medicinal plants and wild produce such as prairie turnips and chokecherries.
Men grew tobacco and hunted bison, elk, deer, and other game; whole communities would also participate in driving herds of big game over cliffs.
Fish, fowl, and small game were also eaten. Until the horse the only domesticated animals were dogs ; these were sometimes eaten but were mostly used as draft animals. Dogs drew the travois, a vehicle consisting of two poles in the shape of a V, with the open end of the V dragging on the ground; burdens were placed on a platform that bridged the two poles.
Because of the limitations inherent in using only dogs and people to carry loads, Plains peoples did not generally engage in extensive travel before the horse.
Before horses became available, intertribal warfare was relatively rare and few battles were deadly. However, a period of exceptional conflict occurred in the 14th century, probably due to the same kinds of drought-induced crop failure that caused the dispersal of the Ancestral Pueblo and Hohokam cultures of the Southwest at approximately the same time.
Indigenous communities in the path of destruction fled, displacing their neighbours and creating a kind of domino effect in which nearly every Northeast Indian tribe shifted location; eventually groups as far inland as present-day Minnesota and Ontario were displaced westward to the Plains.
By the midth century horses had also arrived, coming from the Southwest via trade with the Spanish and the expansion of herds of escaped animals. Guns were also entering the Plains, via the fur trade.
Plains peoples, whether established residents or newcomers, quickly combined horses and guns to their advantage. Most hunters initially chose to use bows and arrows in the mounted hunt, as these provided greater accuracy than early guns.
However, as firearms became more accurate, they were readily adopted.Sapiens: A Brief History of Humankind is a book bound to appear on a large number of coffee tables and favorite lists, and be picked up even by those who normally would not find the time for reading.
It will certainly not be the next A Brief History of Time, which is often named as the world's top unfinished popular bestseller. Both A Brief History of Time and Sapiens share a similar, worthy. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. When it hit, it wasn't like the movies, there were no zombies. It wasn't World War III, and the attack itself was barely visible. The aftermath, however, was far worse than any Hollywood movie could ever portray.
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Aaron Huey's effort to photograph poverty in America led him to the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation, where the struggle of the native Lakota people -- appalling, and largely ignored -- compelled him to refocus.
Five years of work later, his haunting photos intertwine with a shocking history lesson. Chief Wahoo was the logo of the Cleveland Indians, a Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise based in Cleveland, monstermanfilm.com part of the larger Native American mascot controversy, it has drawn criticism from Native Americans, social scientists, and religious and educational groups, but remains popular among many fans of the Cleveland Indians baseball team.