Advanced Search Abstract The detection of new designer drugs is often a difficult issue in forensic urine drug testing as immunoassays are the primary screening methodology for drugs of abuse in many of these laboratories.
Antibodies specific for the methylenedioxy class of amphetamine derivatives, reagent kits containing antibodies specific for the methylenedioxy class of amphetamine derivatives, methods of producing antibodies specific for the methylenedioxy class of amphetamine derivatives, and methods of detecting analytes including members of the methylenedioxy class of amphetamine derivatives are also described.
Description The present invention relates to immunoassays, more particularly, to immunoassays for derivatives of amphetamine, and especially to "ecstasy drugs. These compounds, which are derivatives of amphetamine distinguished by having a fused methylenedioxy-phenyl ring system, include: A positive result obtained by such an assay may still not indicate which particular substance or member of the methylenedioxy class of derivatives is present in a sample.
In general, amphetamine and methamphetamine immunoassays are relatively insensitive to and non-specific for ecstasy drugs. SUMMARY The scope of the present invention is defined solely by the appended claims, and is not affected to any degree by the statements within this summary.
Briefly stated, a compound embodying features of the present invention has a structure wherein R1 is -J-M-T; R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, an alkyl group, and a protecting group; and R3 is an optionally substituted alkyl group.
J comprises carbon atoms and heteroatoms. T is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, a hydroxyl, a leaving group, a macromolecular carrier, and a label.
A first antibody embodying features of the present invention is specific for an ecstasy drug.
A second antibody embodying features of the present invention is specific for an analyte having a structure wherein R1 is -J-M-T; R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, an alkyl group, and a protecting group; and R3 is an optionally substituted alkyl group. A reagent kit embodying features of the present invention includes an antibody of a type described above.
A method of producing an antibody embodying features of the present invention includes inoculating a host with an immunogen comprising a structure wherein R1 is -J-M-T; R2 is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, an alkyl group, and a protecting group; and R3 is an optionally substituted alkyl group.
T is a macromolecular carrier. A method for detecting an analyte in a sample that embodies features of the present invention includes contacting the sample with an antibody specific for an ecstasy drug, binding the antibody to the analyte, and detecting an adduct formed by the antibody and the analyte.
Throughout this description and in the appended claims, the following definitions are to be understood: The term "immunogen" refers to any substance capable of eliciting an immune response in an organism. The term "conjugate" refers to any substance formed from the joining together of two parts.
Representative conjugates in accordance with the present invention include those formed by the joining together of a small molecule and a large molecule, such as a protein. The term "conjugate" subsumes the term "immunogen.
The phrase "activated hapten" refers to a hapten that has been provided with an available reaction site - for example, by the attachment of a linking group carrying a reactive moiety - that can be used to connect the hapten to a carrier, immunogen, label, tracer, or other moiety.
The term "linking group" or "linker" refers to a chemical moiety that is used to connect a hapten to a macromolecular carrier, immunogen, label, tracer or other moiety. The use of a linking group may or may not be advantageous or needed, depending on the specific hapten and carrier and desired specificity of antibody.
Suitable linkers include straight, branched, saturated or unsaturated carbon chains, which may incorporate one or more heteroatoms-that is, atoms other than carbon e. The phrases "carrier" and "macromolecular carrier" refer to high molecular weight substances that can be coupled to haptens to form immunogens.
Suitable macromolecular carriers include but are not limited to proteins, glycoproteins, polymers, polysaccharides, polypeptides, and nucleic acids that are recognized as foreign and thereby elicit an immunologic response from a host.
The term "polypeptide" refers to any compound formed by the linkage of two or more amino acids via an amide bond. High molecular weight polypeptides are referred to as "proteins. A label may be attached to its carrier substance directly or indirectly by means of a linking or bridging moiety.
Suitable labels include but are not limited to enzymes e.The controlled substances listed or to be listed in the schedules in this chapter are included by whatever official, common, usual, chemical, or trade name designated. ISSN 6.
European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction MDMA 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine Introduction 11 Introduction Since the adoption by the Council in June of the joint action on the information exchange, risk assessment and control of new synthetic drugs, 2C-I.
PiHKAL: A Chemical Love Story is a book by Dr. Alexander Shulgin and Ann Shulgin which was published in The subject of the work is psychoactive phenethylamine chemical derivatives, notably those that act as psychedelics and/or empathogen-entactogens. The main title is an acronym that stands for "Phenethylamines I Have Known and Loved".
Sep 03, · The method of claim 35 wherein R1> is selected from the group consisting of ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butyl, and R3> is selected from the group consisting of methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, and n-butyl.
The method of claim 35 wherein R 1> is ethyl and R 3. We present a false-positive result of ecstasy (3,4-methylenedioxy-NN-methylamphetamine) screening due to the therapeutic use of fenofibrate, an antihyperlipidemic drug. Our hypothesis was that the main metabolite of fenofibrate, fenofibric acid, was responsible for this cross-reactivity on a DRI ® Ecstasy Assay, using a cut-off of ng/mL.
The solvent was removed under vacuum giving g of an amber oil that, on standing, formed crystals of N-formyl-3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine. An alternate process for the synthesis of this amide involved holding at reflux for 16 h a solution of 10g of MDA as the free base in 20 mL fresh ethyl formate.