A second point concerns the proposition that VI Atr. That Wulfstan should have been responsible for drafting the code is a natural assumption, given his apparently friendly relations with Cnut and the familiarity which the compiler of the code shows with Wulfstan's earlier writings. But Whitelock assembled a considerable amount of evidence of a more detailed kind to support this assumption, based on variations within the range of the stylistic habits that Wulfstan shows elsewhere, similarities in D to his known methods of extracting from his sources and the Wulfstan associations of much of the other material in the manuscript.
The basic problem with Cnut's reign regnant AD is the evidence available - consideration of this takes up one chapter. Archaeological evidence is not considered, save for Lawson pointing out that he is no expert in numismatics and so doesn't feel up to evaluating the evidence from coins.
Queen Emma was a canny woman and had a history produced to explain her actions and justify herself to posterity - this does the remarkable job of sweeping her first marriage under the carpet and not mentioning the children she had by Aethlred.
This is actually not a bad haul of evidence for the time, we're relatively well informed about Cnut, or at least his English activities, he was also King of the Danes, ruler over Norway most of the time and obscurely over part of Sweden too. Lawson's book reminded me of how much I got from unification and conquestLawson by contrast is diffident, he lacks the ideas or doesn't share the insight to pull together the divergent threads and have the reader think 'wow', instead ideas are pushed around a plate as they cool down.
The idea that Cnut was influenced by mainland notions of sacral kingship is interesting, but under developed, for all that he walked the last five miles barefoot to St Cuthbert's shrine always a wise move to appear humbly before a vindictive saint or likewise the reinterpretation of the famous stories of Cnut commanding the tide to turn back as demonstration of the power of God compared with the powerlessness of an earthly ruler, the flip side of this theatre of sacral monarchy is that it worked to enhance regal authority.
The king was not just any man but a man, the man who could be compared with God. Lawson is tantalising about family relationships but inconclusive, pointing out the dense webs of family connections that seemingly controlled appointments to certain bishoprics, also how Northamptonshire woman in the person of AElfgifu was what won Cnut the kingdom, that she was later sent to Norway was regent for their son Harold raises the possibility that her family connections were on both sides of the North Sea, or more simply that she was both judged sufficiently competent and acceptable as a political heavyweight to fulfil that role or more negatively non-threatening to the Norwegian nexus of powerful families.
Equally the role of Emma is allusive, did marriage to her function as a claim to the kingdom or just to create a relationship with the Duchy of Normandy? One of the great problems for Lawson is explaining the collapse of the kingdom under AEthelred, in part he puts this over as a taxpayer's revolt, pointing out that the costs of fighting far outweighed the attempts to buy off the Danes and the reluctance of local notables to tax themselves.
Despite which,local levies seem to have fought fairly well while national armies under performed. This remains obscure and inexplicable in Lawson's account.
Lawson takes as read the argument that Anglo-Saxon England was administratively more complex and capable than its neighbours, but without going into the controversy, this is typical of the book, it highlights difficult areas but doesn't explore them or ignores conflicting views when the author wants and is lacking in terms of the analysis.
However Lawson provides a nice summary in one short volume of Cnut as English King. Lawson points out that ultimately Cnut was unlucky, had he lived as long as William the conqueror and one of his sons as long as Henry I then things would have been quite different - the key to political success in the middle ages was a long life - being able to out live rivals you could eventually get your way simply through repetition.
As it was his regime fell apart fairly rapidly and under Edward the Confessor drifted out of the Scandinavian world and closer to Normandy.Emma of Normandy (c. – 6 March ) was a queen consort of England, Denmark and Norway.
She was the daughter of Richard I, Duke of Normandy, and his second wife, Gunnora. Through her marriages to Æthelred the Unready (–) and Cnut the Great (–), she became the Queen Consort of England, Denmark, and Norway.
The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway Edited by Alexander R. Rumble Leicester University Press London in association with Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies.
Anglo Saxon Coins A silver penny from the reign of Cnut, King of Denmark and England Minted at Exeter (c ). The Reign of Cnut: King of England, Denmark and Norway Edited by Alexander R.
Rumble Leicester University Press London in association with Manchester Centre for Anglo-Saxon Studies. He was the son of King Cnut the Great (who ruled Denmark, Norway, and England) and Emma of Normandy. When Cnut died in , Harthacnut struggled to retain his father's possessions.
When Cnut died in , Harthacnut struggled to retain his father's monstermanfilm.comessor: Cnut the Great. "The reign of King Cnut is here reassessed in the light of modern advances in the application of numismatic, literary, documentary and onomastic evidence to historical studies.