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Grammar cited in Lynch in http: Thus, grammatical knowledge is a form and structure of words and their interrelation in sentences.
According to Anderson in Mitchellthe grammatical knowledge is divided into two forms, namely declarative grammatical knowledge and procedural grammatical knowledge. Declarative knowledge explicit knowledge is the knowledge about something, which is factual information and is usually conscious: Dekeyserin Akira, Besides, procedural knowledge implicit knowledge is the knowledge of how to do something and is usually unconscious, for instance, riding a bicycle.
On the other hand, Akira defines declarative grammatical knowledge as the knowledge about grammar rules, while procedural grammatical rules is the knowledge about how to use grammar rules appropriately, meaningfully and automatically.
In second language acquisition, having a good grammatical knowledge is very crucial. Grammatical knowledge can be acquired effectively by understanding all aspect of language such as phonology, vocabulary, morphology, syntax and discourse.
As stated by Seville-Troikephonology refers to the sound system of the words. By understanding this aspect, learners can differentiate speech sounds that make a difference in meaning, syllables structure, intonation pattern, and rhythmic patterns.
While vocabulary or lexicon related to word meaning, pronunciation, grammatical category part of speechand possible occurrence in combination with other words and idioms. Having good understanding in morphology can guide learners to understand morphemes, inflections that carry grammatical information, prefixes and suffixes.
Syntax or grammar related to word order, agreement between sentence elements, ways to form questions, to negotiate assertions, and to focus or structure information among sentences. The last aspect is discourse, this aspect can help learners understanding the ways to connect sentences and organize information across sentence boundaries, structures for telling stories, engaging in conversation, etc.
Grammatical knowledge also relates to the overall ability to use L2 namely reading, speaking, writing and listening. Having good grammatical knowledge enables learners to achieve all of these skills.
According to Akirathe grammatical knowledge relates to overall ability to use L2 in terms of four points: For example, to achieve the reading comprehension we need to understand the information given by the text, for instance, we can identify where the agent and theme of the text or identify the tenses of text or sentences.
Moreover, in writing, the learners need to transfer their grammatical concept from oral language to written. In transferring their grammatical concept, the learners must have greater grammatical knowledge, because writing is a complex activity for many learners who acquire L2 Chin cited in people.
In addition, having sufficient grammatical knowledge also important in listening skills, for instance, the learners can differentiate the words that have similar sound but different meaning and form.
Therefore, having adequate grammatical knowledge of L2 enables learners to create their own grammatically correct sentences and understand what they read or hear in L2 exactly.
The development of L2 grammatical knowledge is not only affected by internal condition, but the external conditions is.
The external conditions include input, environment, interaction, grammar instruction, etc. However, we cannot only rely on input in the developmental of grammatical knowledge, because input can be useless if we cannot produce in the real conversation or real life. Furthermore, interaction also plays an important role in the L2 grammatical development.
The Interaction hypothesis was proposed by Long in This hypothesis is the extension of input hypothesis.Theories of second-language acquisition are various theories and hypotheses in the field of second-language acquisition about how people learn a second language.
Corder's essay rejected a behaviorist account of SLA and suggested that learners made use of intrinsic internal linguistic processes; Selinker's article argued that second-language.
Language Acquisition Theories Essay Sample Free Language Acquisition Essays and Papers. This part will involve a general introduction of the lesson. The main task in this case will involve definition of the term language acquisition. At the same time, a number of theories will be put forward in line with the aspect of language acquisition.
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