How much is a book worth after its contents have been read and absorbed? Veteran Singapore writer and educator Robert Yeo and book conservator Alex Teoh will share their knowledge and experiences of book collecting and upkeep. View books from their personal collections, some dating back over a century, that show that the stories behind the books are sometimes as important as the stories in them. Find out more about the tangible and intangible value of old books, even as younger readers continue to migrate to electronic platforms.
The most common form of self-harm involves cutting of the skin using a sharp object, e.
The term self-mutilation is also sometimes used, although this phrase evokes connotations that some find worrisome, inaccurate, or offensive. A broader definition of self-harm might also include those who inflict harm on their bodies by means of disordered eating.
The older literature has used several different terms. For this reason research in the past decades has inconsistently focused on self-harming behavior without and with suicidal intent including suicide attempts with varying definitions leading to inconsistent and unclear results.
Criteria for NSSI include five or more days of self-inflicted harm over the course of one year without suicidal intent, and the individual must have been motivated by seeking relief from a negative state, resolving an interpersonal difficulty, or achieving a positive state.
Many self-harmers are very self-conscious of their wounds and scars and feel guilty about their behaviour, leading them to go to great lengths to conceal their behaviour from others. People who self-harm are not usually seeking to end their own life; it has been suggested instead that they are using self-harm as a coping mechanism to relieve emotional pain or discomfort or as an attempt to communicate distress.
It is often seen as only a symptom of an underlying disorder,  though many people who self-harm would like this to be addressed. The key areas of disorder which exhibit an increased risk include autism spectrum disorders  borderline personality disorderbipolar disorder depression  phobias and conduct disorders.
Those diagnosed with schizophrenia have a high risk of suicide, which is particularly greater in younger patients as they may not have an insight into the serious effects that the disorder can have on their lives.
However, the link between genetics and self-harm in otherwise healthy patients is largely inconclusive. Benzodiazepine dependence as well as benzodiazepine withdrawal is associated with self-harming behaviour in young people. There is also a positive statistical correlation between self-harm and emotional abuse.
This may sound strange. It may also be an attempt to affect others and to manipulate them in some way emotionally. This may be achieved by tricking the mind into believing that the present suffering being felt is caused by the self-harm instead of the issues they were facing previously: Those who self-harm sometimes describe feelings of emptiness or numbness anhedoniaand physical pain may be a relief from these feelings.
They may then recognise the need to function more, or have a desire to feel real again, and a decision is made to create sensation and 'wake up'. It may even be hard for some to actually initiate cutting, but they often do because they know the relief that will follow.
For some self-harmers this relief is primarily psychological while for others this feeling of relief comes from the beta endorphins released in the brain.
As a coping mechanism, self-harm can become psychologically addictive because, to the self-harmer, it works; it enables them to deal with intense stress in the current moment. The patterns sometimes created by it, such as specific time intervals between acts of self-harm, can also create a behavioural pattern that can result in a wanting or craving to fulfill thoughts of self-harm.
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Some of this is environmental and some of this is due to physiological differences in responding. The sympathetic nervous system innervates e.A comprehensive review of positive psychology.
Positive psychology. William D. Tillier; Calgary Alberta; Update: Under construction. A gender role, also known as a sex role, is a social role encompassing a range of behaviors and attitudes that are generally considered acceptable, appropriate, or desirable for people based on their actual or perceived sex or sexuality.
Gender roles are usually centered on conceptions of femininity and masculinity, although there are exceptions and variations. Sometimes, body image or self-esteem problems are too much to handle alone. Health issues, depression, or trauma can affect how you feel about yourself.
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