Greek and Roman precedents The history of the Western state begins in ancient Greece. This city-state, characterized primarily by its self-sufficiency, was seen by Aristotle as the means of developing morality in the human character.
Our first task is therefore to provide a clear definition of equality in the face of widespread misconceptions about its meaning as a political idea. Thus, to say e. Two non-identical objects are never completely equal; they are different at least in their spatiotemporal location. Here usage might vary.
In the case of descriptive use of equality, the common standard is itself descriptive, e. A prescriptive use of equality is present when a prescriptive standard is applied, i.
The standards grounding prescriptive assertions of equality contain at least two components. On the one hand, there is a descriptive component, since the assertions need to contain descriptive criteria, in order to identify those people to which the rule or norm applies.
The question of this identification — who belongs to which category? On the other hand, the comparative standards contain something normative — a moral or legal rule, in the example, the U. Such a rule constitutes the prescriptive component Westenchap. Sociological and economic analyses of in- equality mainly pose the questions of how inequalities can be determined and measured and what their causes and effects are.
In contrast, social and political philosophy is in general concerned mainly with the following questions: Such is the case in this article as well. Equality essentially consists of a tripartite relation between two or several objects or persons and one or several qualities.
Two objects a and b are equal in a certain respect if, in that respect, they fall under the same general terminus.
Every comparison presumes a tertium comparationis, a concrete attribute defining the respect in which the equality applies — equality thus referring to a common sharing of this comparison-determining attribute.
There is another source of diversity as well: As Temkinargues, various different standards might be used to measure inequality, with the respect in which people are compared remaining constant. The difference between a general concept and different specific conceptions Rawlsp. Depending on which procedural principle one adopts, contrary answers are forthcoming.
Both equality and inequality are complex and multifaceted concepts Temkinchap. In any real historical context, it is clear that no single notion of equality can sweep the field. But they believe that there is also a common underlying strain of important moral concerns implicit in it Williams Above all it serves to remind us of our common humanity, despite various differences cf.
In this sense, egalitarians tend to think of egalitarianism as a single coherent normative doctrine — but one in any case embracing a variety of principles.PDF | This paper provides a small summary of Social Contract Theory by Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau.
It discusses what is the social contract theory and the reason. Thomas Hobbes (), John Locke () and Jean-Jacques Rousseau () are the most famous philosophers of _____, Hobbes' response was an authoritarian monarchy, Locke's response was a liberal monarchy, while Rousseau advocated liberal republicanism.
This article is concerned with social and political equality. In its prescriptive usage, ‘equality’ is a loaded and ‘highly contested’ concept. State: State, political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government.
The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its. Jul 28, · The theories of Locke and Rousseau can thus be seen as - to a degree - based on Hobbes disquisitions.
However, the latter two have transformed Hobbes' concept to fit into their respective perspectives on human nature and society. Thomas Hobbes, John Locke, and Jean-Jaques Rousseau the first major modern political philosophers. They would write work through the enlighten period, that covered a span of years.
The three philosophers set the groundwork that is modern day political thought.