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An experiment was conducted which varied level of processing of brand names by directing attention to either physical or semantic aspects. Memory was superior for items presumed to be processed at a deep level.
This theory postulates that memory is a function of the type of cognitive processes which occur during exposure to a to-be-remembered stimulus and has elements in common with a number of recent theories of advertising effects e.
Craik and Lockhart argued that memory is a function of the "level" to which material is processed and that this is independent of the amount of repetition or rehearsal of the stimulus. While Word preocessing level 2 precise definition of "level" has not been specified, the variable involves the degree to which material is subjected to elaboration by the learner in terms of relating it to his prior experience and knowledge.
Items processed to a deeper level that is, subjected to greater elaboration are hypothesized to be more readily remembered.
An example of a typical levels-of-processing experiment will serve to illustrate how the concept is operationally defined. Hyde and Jenkins manipulated the orienting task of a number of groups of experimental subjects.
Each group was presented with a long list of words that were to be processed in one of several ways. In one condition, the subjects were asked to look at the words and rate how pleasant or unpleasant each one was on a five-point scale. Another group was simply asked to count and write down the number of times the letter E appeared in each word they were shown.
Following this, the subjects in both groups were given a surprise recall task in which they were to write down all the words they could remember. This procedure corresponds to the usual "incidental learning" paradigm used in many memory experiments. Differences in recall were observed among the groups.
Remarkably, this was even better recall than that of a group of subjects who had been specifically instructed to try to learn the words. It is presumed that the groups differed only in the level of processing of the material since the word list and exposure time were identical across conditions.
In terms of Craik and Lockhart's theory, it is argued that when a person is required to ascertain whether a word is pleasant or unpleasant, it must be considered thought about in terms of all of its available attributes and associations; such deep processing is sufficient to maintain a high level of memorability.
The letter-counting activity, on the other hand, directs the attention to superficial aspects of the material to be remembered, resulting in a shallow level of processing. The levels theory has been subjected to a great deal of theoretical and empirical elaboration in the past several years.
For example, Craik and Tulving have argued that the effects are more accurately characterized as "spread" of processing rather than depth. That is, the successful recall of an item depends upon its encoding in additional contexts e.
In Craik and Tulving's experiments, subjects were asked to respond to questions about words presented to them. Again, no mention was made that the words were to be remembered.
An example of a deep processing question would be "Is the word a part of the body?Word Processing Software NVQ Level 2. Online courses All courses.
1 NVQ Level 2 Word Processing Software Courses. Filter your results Qualifications. NVQ Level 2. Subjects. Word Processing Software Location. All Location. Study mode. All Study modes. Reset Filters. Introduction to Birmingham Adult Education Service.
Entry Level 2, Unit 9 - Using Word Processing Software (2 credits) 1.
Enter, edit and combince text and other information accurately within word processing documents. 2. Use word processing software tools to structure information, format and present documents. Identify what types of information are needed in documents.
. OCR Text Production and Word Processing Level 2 Course (RSA II) This course is suitable for those who wish to reach the standard required for OCR (Oxford, Cambridge and the RSA) Level 2 in Word Processing and Text Production. To achieve the level 2 Award you must pass the level 2 Text Production course and the level 2 Word Processing course.
OCR Level 3 equivalent Courses at this level are suitable for people who either already hold level 2 qualifications or who have significant work experience in a secretarial role. Download Nulled WordPress ThemesDownload WordPress ThemesFree Download WordPress ThemesFree Download WordPress Themesfree download udemy paid .
The Word Processing (Level 3) Unit requires you to produce four documents (a multi-page report/article; a newspaper style article, a 2-sided programme or leaflet and a 4-column multi- line table, with sub-divided and vertical headings.
|Real Life Applications||By Saul McLeodpublished The levels of processing model Craik and Lockhart, focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.|