Her father was the grandson of a Russian Jew who fled Russia when he was 15 years old in order to escape military service and her mother was the child of Jewish emigrants from Hungary. Her father was a schoolteacher and dedicated socialistwhom she credited with inspiring her passion for social justice.
Overview[ edit ] The purpose of coercion is to substitute one's aims to those of the victim. For this reason, many social philosophers have considered coercion as the polar opposite to freedom. Physical[ edit ] Physical coercion is the most commonly considered form of coercion, where the content of the conditional threat is the use of force against a victim, their relatives or property.
An often used example is "putting a gun to someone's head" at gunpoint or putting a "knife under the throat" at knifepoint or cut-throat to compel action or the victim gets killed or injured.
These are so common that they are also used as metaphors for other forms of coercion. Armed forces in many countries use firing squads to maintain discipline and intimidate the masses, or opposition, into submission or silent compliance. However, there also are nonphysical forms of coercion, where the threatened injury does not immediately imply the use of force.
Byman and Waxman define coercion as "the use of threatened force, including the limited use of actual force to back up the threat, to induce an adversary to behave differently than it otherwise would.
Psychological[ edit ] In psychological coercionthe threatened injury regards the victim's relationships with other people. The most obvious example is blackmailwhere the threat consists of the dissemination of damaging information.
However, many other types are possible e. Another example is coercive persuasion.
Psychological coercion — along with the other varieties — was extensively and systematically used by the government of the People's Republic of China during the "Thought Reform" campaign of — The process — carried out partly at "revolutionary universities" and partly within prisons — was investigated and reported upon by Robert Jay Liftonthen Research Professor of Psychiatry at Yale University: The techniques used by the Chinese authorities included a technique derived from standard group psychotherapywhich was aimed at forcing the victims who were generally intellectuals to produce detailed and sincere ideological "confessions".
For instance, a professor of formal logic called Chin Yueh-lin — who was then regarded as China's leading authority on his subject — was induced to write:This course examines the large and growing body of law addressing relationships between human activities and the environment, including the legal regimes governing air, water, toxic chemicals, hazardous waste, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystems, and climate change.
submission to victoria law reform - Victorian Law Reform Commission warring families are more likely to forgive and forget than if a long, costly and painfully protracted battle ensues). For low and middle income families regardless.
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Who can write a submission on law reform? Submissions on law and policy reform can generally be made by anyone. Joint submissions between different groups are also an effective way to demonstrate that the community is concerned with an issue.
Below is a list of civil rights organizations with which CLS students have worked in the past on a pro bono basis. The Center for Public Interest Law administers Columbia's pro bono program and has more information on many of these organizations.
As submissions provide the evidence base for law reform proposals, it is common for the ALRC to draw upon the contents of submissions and quote from them or refer to them in publications. Public submissions. Public submissions may .